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first_imgWhile in Oregon this week I was able to talk with Jake G, He’s in the Brand Promise Validation team (which I thought he was part of Interop team), however you’ll see what he tells me when you watch the video. This is the first part of the day & throughout the afternoon he showed me a couple of innovative ways Intel is testing vPro to ensure it is ready for IT shops & End Users. Also to note, if you have seen my prior posts on CIRA (FAst Call for Help), Jake is the one helped me get the pitures, demo’s & startup data for those posts a few month’s back. Next Up, Jake walks me through the Ideation Lab, their infrastructure & their console testing automation setup.Prior Feet on the Streetlast_img read more

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first_imgNo # Cores Queues and execution resources PCI Express FSB – 1.6GHz 4 Gen 2 4 Xeon 5400 Discrete 2 x 6MB 45nm Intel VT + Enhancements L2 Cache Size –          Did they double the number of cores?-          No…same number of cores. Xeon 5500 DDR3 16 DDR2-FB-DIMM 3.4GHz 45nm –          Did they make major changes to the CPU micro-architecture…like issuing and retiring many more instructions per clock? –          No.  Same 4-instruction per clock issue/retire capabilities. 4 4 Core Frequency Baseline Yes The various changes added up to “major” improvements in performance.  Some of these changes are listed below…shown in comparison to the previous generation Xeon 5400 series platform which was/is no slouch.  Even today, more than a year after its introduction, the Xeon 5400 was still was the highest performing 2-scoket platform on many benchmarks.  That is until the Xeon 5500. N/A So how did they “double’ the performance?  This is what truly amazes me.  This team was able to essentially double the performance of the platform, without changing the most obvious (e.g. # of cores, CPU frequency, major micro-architecture changes, Si process technology or cache size).  Instead, they made many changes and optimizations to the entire “platform” as well as some incremental enhancements to the processor micro-architecture (like deeper queues)…which collectively removed bottle necks in many different places and the results are nothing short of fantastic.  800, 1066, 1333MHz Deeper queues & more resources Process Technologycenter_img In my last blog I talked about working on great projects which were “special”. Special in that everyone enjoyed coming to work, they worked well together, and part of the “magic” was we all knew we were working on something revolutionary.  Well that special, revolutionary project is now available for all to see, and it is known as the Intel® Xeon® processor 5500 series and Intel Xeon® 5500 series chipset. 4 x 256MB Instructions per clock 533, 667, 800MHz Intel® Turbo-Boost Technology 18 Bus Connection No QPI – 6.4GT/s Memory Controller Feature Integrated What amazes me the most about this project/platform is the incredible leap in performance compared to its previous generation platform which was based on the Intel Xeon processor 5400 series. For a new generation platform, 20-30% improvements in performance is typical.  And 50% vs. the previous generation platform is above normal, but the new Xeon 5500 series platform out performs the previous generation platform (Xeon 5400) by 2X or more on many benchmarks.  That’s right…nearly twice the performance!  (Click here for performance details.) Max # DIMMS                (2 Socket Platform) –          Did they use a new silicon process technology? –          No…both use the same 45nm process. Memory Type L3 Cache Size 8MB Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology Yes So how did they achieve this monster leap in performance? –          Did they double the core frequency? –          No…in fact core frequency has gone down slightly. Gen 1 Memory Channels         (2 Socket platform) 6 Virtualization Features Memory Frequency 3.2GHz 4 Intel VT –          Did they increase cache size? –          No…total L2 + L3 cache size actually went down (9MB vs 12MB). All I can say is wow!  And all this performance comes in a lower platform power envelope than the Xeon 5400.  The performance and power savings are a true testament to this team’s ability to work together and deliver a truly revolutionary product. Congratulations to the entire “Nehalem” team (aka Xeon 5500)!    Click the link below to find out more about “Nehalem”. http://www.intel.com/products/processor/xeon5000/index.htmlast_img read more

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first_img get funding to do the work. The technique offers a potential way to generate genetically tailored cells without destroying human embryos. Three groups got licenses last year to cultivate embryos by inserting human DNA into animal eggs. Last fall, two of them failed to get funding for the work. The third group hasn’t applied yet (subscription required).From The Independent:People reviewing grants may be looking at this from a completely different moral perspective and how much that has influenced people’s perception about whether this should be funded, we don’t know,” said Professor Stephen Minger of King’s College London.Minger (pictured) told Science, however, that he thinks the “very competitive funding environment” led to the decision by the Medical Research Council reviewers. He also points out that his group would have needed £100,000, a major investment for the U.K. government, just for equipment. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The stem cell community is stirred up with the news that after all the trouble U.K. scientists went to to persuade the government to let them make “hybrid” embryos, they can’t last_img read more

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first_imgAustria will remain a member of CERN. Yesterday, Austrian chancellor Werner Faymann overruled his science minister, Johannes Hahn, and said that Austria would not pull out of the European particle physics center near Geneva at the end of 2010, as Hahn had asserted on 7 May. Faymann said he didn’t want to damage Austria’s reputation as a reliable partner in international collaborations, but there appear to be other factors involved in the U-turn.The government of Lower Austria is understood to have kicked up a fuss because CERN scientists are helping it build a particle-beam cancer therapy center called MedAustron. Lower Austria officials were concerned that a severing of ties with CERN would delay the project. The announced withdrawal also prompted a public debate about the value of such fundamental research. Austria’s scientific community rallied very rapidly, and an online petition garnered more than 32,000 signatures within days.The governing coalition’s internal politics may have played a role as well, as Faymann is a Social Democrat and Hahn a Conservative. A few weeks ago, some high school reforms proposed by the Social Democrat education minister were quashed after a public outcry, and Hahn’s shaming may have an element of scores being settled.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Whatever the internal squabbles, Hahn was widely criticized for failing to consult first with the scientific community, CERN, or the Austrian chancellor. “It was not very well handled,” says Christian Fabjan, director of the Institute for High Energy Physics in the Austrian Academy of Sciences. “There were very many arguments against withdrawal, and very few for it.”last_img read more

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first_imgA new group is adding its voice to the furor over the influence of drug money on medical research and practice, saying there should be more money to study the problem. In a letter today to National Institutes of Health Director Francis Collins, 100 physicians, medical ethicists, and others call for funding: The recent disclosure of ghostwritten articles, physician payoffs, and the use of academic opinion leaders to increase markets for FDA-regulated products indicate that ethical lapses may permeate biomedical research. … In your role as the director of “the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation,” we ask that you acknowledge the research gap on the effect of conflicts of interest and commercial influence on medical decisionmaking … Between bench and bedside lies a path treacherous with ethical quandaries. NIH is the best place to launch and support a scientifically rigorous inquiry into the state of research ethics, industry-academic relationships, and the effect of these relationships on human health. There is currently no identifiable mechanism through which NIH would fund this research.The message—we want more money for our research—seems self-serving, and it’s not as though NIH doesn’t fund anything in this area already. (For example, NIH grants have supported surveys of academics about their industry funding.) But Georgetown University physician Adriane Fugh-Berman, who heads a group called Pharmed Out that spearheaded the letter, says NIH tends to reject grant applications on topics such as ghostwriting and industry funding for medical education. “I think that NIH has thought that it doesn’t comes under their domain, and the trouble is that it doesn’t come under anybody’s domain,” she says.The letter’s signatories show that diverse voices have come together to speak out on the issue. The list includes psychiatrists, current and former journal editors, ethicists (including Lisa Bero of the University of California, San Francisco, who studies the influence of drug money on research), patient and consumer advocates, medical students, and Susan Wood, an FDA official who quit over meddling in science by the Bush Administration. Pharmed Out is funded from a 2004 legal settlement involving Pfizer’s marketing of a drug. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The letter ask for a face-to-face meeting with Collins. Stay tuned.last_img read more

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first_imgAnalytical chemist Vincent Paez, an official with analytical chemistry giant Thermo Fisher Scientific, set up the new Food Safety Response Center in Dreieich, Germany, this year after feeling that his company had previously reacted “too slowly” to contaminations or emergency events in which chemists were needed. Thermo builds large machines like gas chromatographs and the chemicals one uses with them, and Paez envisioned that the new five-person facility, which opened on 15 April, would respond rapidly with new methods for preparing and testing samples. Five days later, the BP Deepwater Horizon platform exploded, and food safety labs along the Gulf Coast began to panic. “It was a huge coincidence,” he says. “We were planning to do a simulated emergency to try out our procedures.” But then the spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and the Thermo team has swung into action to set up new procedures for rapidly measuring for contaminants in seafood or water samples. Gulf food-safety chemists will soon be inundated with samples as the fishing industry and state officials scramble to analyze seafood catches as safe across the gulf. Most of the machines used in the region are fairly old, says Paez, running typical samples to determine levels of hydrocarbon contaminants in roughly 40 minutes. He says new machines, with methods the Thermo team is racing to finalize, could do it in 10 minutes, he estimates. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The newer methods could also find more information, he says. Most seafood safety chemists look for the most important toxicants in oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Paez’s team is developing a single test that will reveal if the oil constituents found in samples match the chemical profile of the Deepwater crude, which Paez recently flew to Louisiana to collect. Dispersant could be another challenge for food safety, and toward that end, Paez’s chemists are hoping to offer analytical methods to spot it in seafood. “We’re in new territory dumping so much of this dispersant in one place,” he says. *The title of this article has been amended from “Emergency Toxicity Lab Just in Time for Gulf Disaster” to “Emergency Toxics Lab Just in Time for Gulf Disaster” to more closely reflect the work of the lab.last_img read more

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first_imgWhen it finally accepts students in 2012, the Okinawa Institute for Science and Technology (OIST) aims to provide a new model of a Japanese research university, scrapping the division into traditional academic departments, focusing on interdisciplinary research, conducting business in English, and drawing roughly half of its faculty members from overseas. Last week, officials announced they have appointed particle physicist Jonathan Dorfan, currently at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California, to be its first president. The nascent graduate university, which hopes to win accreditation next year and open in 2011, plans eventually to hire 50 faculty members and serve about 120 graduate students. In addition to the challenge of creating a new type of academic institution, Dorfan must also deal with criticism from politicians and academics that the university is a political boondoggle. Conceived in the early 2000s, OIST opened as a research institute in September 2005. A nine-person committee that oversees the institute screened 160 candidates before picking Dorfan for his stature as a scientist and his demonstrated ability to manage a large institution and oversee international collaborations. “He’s a good man, he offers administrative experience, and he is really enthusiastic about building this institution,” says committee member Kiyoshi Kurokawa, a former dean of the Tokai University School of Medicine in Hiratsuka, and a former science adviser to Japan’s cabinet. “He is already thinking of how to make [OIST] more visible to the global science community,” Kurokawa adds. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) For his part, Dorfan says he was attracted by the challenge of developing a top-flight interdisciplinary research institute from scratch on the relatively remote island. OIST officials first asked him if he’d like to be considered for the post about 9 months ago, he says. “To be honest, I had not heard of OIST at the time, and as I became more and more familiar with it, I became captivated by the boldness of the endeavor.” From 1999 to 2007, Dorfan served as director of SLAC, a physics laboratory with a staff of 1500 and an annual budget of $300 million. Prior to that, he oversaw the construction of the lab’s flagship particle collider, PEP-II, which attracted hundreds of researchers from around the world. OIST is hoping to break new ground for Japanese universities by emphasizing multidisciplinary research, filling 50% of research and faculty positions with non-Japanese and conducting all instruction in English. Famed molecular biologist and Nobel laureate Sydney Brenner is the institute’s first president, and he will continue in that post until OIST formally becomes a university. Under his leadership, “We have been arguably quite successful in building up the life sciences side of this (institution),” says OIST Vice President Robert Baughman. Dorfan is expected to extend that success to the physical sciences while also overseeing the development of a graduate curriculum, he says. Kurokawa acknowledges that a number of politicians in the ruling party and academics have complained about the money going into OIST. It currently has an operating budget of $124 million. Another $45 million is being spent on new buildings just this year. But Kurokawa says starting a new institute is a response to the “almost impossible” task of reforming the academic establishment. He thinks OIST will set an example for other universities to follow. “We have to convince Japanese policymakers and also academics that (spending on OIST) is worth it,” he says.last_img read more

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first_imgMusic mania is sweeping the ocean, and all the young male humpback whales are in on the latest trend. A new study reveals that, just like humans, humpback whales in the South Pacific follow musical trends that change by the season. Moreover, these songs always move from west to east across thousands of miles of ocean—from the east coast of Australia to French Polynesia—over the course of a year or two. The authors say it’s one of the most complex and rapid patterns of cultural evolution across a region ever observed in a nonhuman species.The findings are based on 11 years of recordings from underwater microphones slung over the sides of boats, which were collected by marine biologist Ellen Garland of the University of Queensland in Australia and colleagues. Picking out the patterns took a while; the team had to listen to 745 songs in total from six whale populations across the South Pacific over the 11-year period. The researchers identified 11 distinctly different styles (audio). Sometimes the “hit song” contained snippets from previous seasons, sometimes it was entirely revolutionary. But at any given time and place, there was only one song. What’s more, the popular song switched incredibly rapidly; it took only 2 to 3 months for whales in a given region to entirely change their tune, the team reports online today in Current Biology. For male whales, singing is known to be a mating behavior, and Garland calls the results a “weird interaction of constrained novelty” where each whale wants to one-up the whale next to it but still feels pressure to conform enough that it doesn’t stand out as an oddball. But whether a whale primarily intends its song to impress females or to intimidate other males with its swanky style remains unclear. Peter Tyack, a marine biologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, who was not involved in the research, says that to understand this, behavioral biologists “need to dive in a little more deeply to understand subtle details of how males respond to males and how females choose an animal for mating.” Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)This is extremely difficult to do, as humpbacks are too large to be put in captivity for study, and no good methods for tracking individual mating patterns exist. For instance, it’s currently impossible to tell how a female swimming through a group of males singing the same song picks out one animal from the rest. Garland says she’d love to study which aspects of a song are important for helping males mate and whether nonconformists are less successful at mating. Garland says it’s also not clear why the song spreads in one direction only. She guesses that the high density of whales off the east coast of Australia affords more opportunity for new songs to arise than in a sparsely populated region such as French Polynesia. Most of all, the researchers would like to understand why humpback whales, of all species, resemble humans in their love for ever-changing yet conformist fashion. “There’s something about these songs; if it were just novelty, then everyone would just do their own thing,” Tyack says. Maybe whales, he thinks, have “a sense of aesthetic judgment.”last_img read more

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first_imgXu Liangying, Chinese historian of science, dissident, and translator of Albert Einstein’s collected works, died of apparent organ failure on 28 January in Beijing. He was 92. Xu’s improbable journey from diehard Communist to rebel scientist began in 1942, after he earned a B.S. in physics from Zhejiang University. That year, the young idealist declined an assistant lectureship at Zhejiang University to pursue a passion for civic activism: He led student movements in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang, and joined the Chinese Communist Party’s underground movement in 1946. After the Communists came to power in 1949, the newly founded Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) recruited Xu to work as a censor for its publication at its Beijing headquarters. Even though Xu wholeheartedly supported Mao Zedong and the Communist Party, Xu told an interviewer in 1999 that he couldn’t understand why the party turned on its critics after inviting them to speak up during the so-called anti-rightist movement of 1957 to 58. Answering Mao’s call of “letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend,” Chinese intellectuals criticized and made suggestions to improve the party bureaucracy, only to have their “snake heads” cut off when Mao retaliated. Xu told the party that such action broke the faith of the people; he was branded a rightist, dismissed from his job, and banished to his ancestral village in Zhejiang to be reformed through labor. Xu worked as a peasant for more than 2 decades. In his spare time, he translated the collected works of Einstein into Chinese. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Deng Xiaoping’s reforms offered Xu the chance to come in from the cold. In 1979, he joined the CAS Institute for the History of Natural Science in Beijing, where he solidified his reputation as China’s foremost Einstein scholar. Just as he appreciated the universality of Einstein’s laws of physics, Xu believed in universal human rights — and he began speaking out. During the government’s antibourgeois liberalization campaign of 1986, Xu was forced into retirement in Beijing because of his advocacy for personal freedoms. After the Chinese government’s bloody crackdown of student protestors in Tiananmen Square in 1989, Xu once again lost his party membership. In 2008, the American Physical Society awarded Xu the Andrei Sakharov Prize for what the citation notes as Xu’s “lifetime’s advocacy of truth, democracy and human rights—despite surveillance and house arrest, harassment and threats, even banishment—through his writings, and publicly speaking his mind.” He continued to write essays expounding on the need for democracy and human rights in China, and started a blog in 2011. Dubbed “Einstein’s Man in Beijing” by The New York Times in 2006, Xu and his compilation of Einstein’s works inspired a generation of Chinese youth who came of age in the 1980s. As Chen Xuelei, an astrophysicist at the National Astronomical Observatories of CAS in Beijing, penned in a blog tribute, “Xu’s three-volume of translation of Einstein’s works greatly influenced me. My love for physics began with reading the translations in high school and has since led me on a journey of physics research.”last_img read more

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first_imgYou need good understanding of the entire erotic vocabulary to pull off a book. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgTo understand India’s middle class as it is now, it helps to think of it as two waves that came 150 years apart. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgIndia’s central bank has said that it will inject 80bn rupees ($1.3bn; £806m) into the country’s banking system by buying long-term government bonds. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgGandhi branded with the racist insult of “coolie lawyer” in South Africa; Mandela thrown into the same Johannesburg prison as Gandhi before him. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgDecorated with colourful trinkets, transporting goods of all sizes and often having men sitting precariously atop them, legs dangling out of the vehicle, trucking in India is often a misunderstood. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgMultinational conglomerates such as GE India and Cisco have indicated that they may acquire young Indian ventures with innovative technologies. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgRepublican Ted Cruz has introduced a bill in the US Senate to make minimum salary of H-1B workers $110,000 per annum. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgHSBC is axing 840 IT jobs in the UK and will transfer the positions to India, China and Poland by March next year as part of a wider, ongoing restructure at the bank. Related Itemslast_img

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first_imgAlcoholic beverages are imbibed in nearly every human society across the world—sometimes, alas, to excess. Although recent evidence suggests that tippling might have deep roots in our primate past, nonhuman primates are only rarely spotted in the act of indulgence. A new study of chimpanzees with easy access to palm wine shows that some drink it enthusiastically, fashioning leaves as makeshift cups with which to lap it up. The findings could provide new insights into why humans evolved a craving for alcohol, with all its pleasures and pains.Scientists first hypothesized an evolutionary advantage to humans’ taste for ethanol about 15 years ago, when a biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, proposed what has come to be called the “drunken monkey hypothesis.” Robert Dudley argued that our primate ancestors got an evolutionary benefit from being able to eat previously unpalatable fruit that had fallen to the ground and started to undergo fermentation. The hypothesis received a boost last year, when a team led by Matthew Carrigan—a biologist at Santa Fe College in Gainesville, Florida—found that the key enzyme that helps us metabolize ethanol underwent an important mutation about 10 million years ago. This genetic change, which occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimps, and gorillas, made ethanol metabolism some 40 times faster than the process in other primates—such as monkeys—that do not have it. According to the hypothesis, the mutation allowed apes to consume fermented fruit without immediately getting drunk or, worse, succumbing to alcohol poisoning.Nevertheless, researchers had turned up little evidence that primates in the wild regularly eat windfall fruit or are attracted to the ethanol that such fruit contains. Now, a team led by Kimberley Hockings, a primatologist at the Center for Research in Anthropology in Lisbon, concludes from a 17-year study of chimps in West Africa that primates can tolerate significant levels of ethanol and may actually crave it, as humans do.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The researchers used video cameras to observe a troop of 26 wild chimps living in Bossou, Guinea, between 1995 and 2012. The villagers living around Bossou routinely tap into the raffia palm tree and collect its sap, which ferments in plastic buckets before being drunk. The villagers collect the fermented palm wine, which has an alcohol content as high as 6.9%, in the early morning and late afternoon. While villagers were away, the chimps approached the buckets, fashioned drinking cups from folded leaves—a toolmaking skill widely observed among wild chimps—and proceeded to consume the beverage themselves. As the team reports online today in Royal Society Open Science, over 17 years it observed 20 “drinking sessions” involving 13 of the chimps, who lapped up the sap at an average rate of about nine leaf dips per minute. On the low end of the scale, that’s roughly equivalent to one liter of beer per session. The 13 chimps included males, females, and young chimps, although not babies. The other 13 animals were never observed drinking during the entire period.Hockings says that although the team was able to collect quantitative data on chimp drinking habits for the first time, the researchers could offer only anecdotal evidence about whether the chimps actually got drunk from the palm wine. On one occasion, Hockings relates, a male chimp “seemed particularly restless” and spent an hour “moving from tree to tree in an agitated manner” while other chimps were settling down to sleep. But she says it would be “pure speculation” to say that he was actually inebriated.Indeed, the team cautions that its observations should not be interpreted to mean that chimps actually crave ethanol, but only that they can tolerate it. The palm sap contains sugars like sucrose and glucose and minerals that chimps might want and need in their diet, the researchers point out. “An experimental trial to provide chimpanzees with access to fermenting and nonfermenting palm sap is needed to test whether ethanol is an attractant or not,” Hockings says, something that would not be easy with wild chimp populations.Nevertheless, the study indirectly supports the “drunken monkey hypothesis” by showing that chimps, with whom humans share a common ancestor, are “not averse to ethanol” and “do not avoid food containing alcohol,” Carrigan says. Brenda Benefit, an anthropologist at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, agrees, although she says the evidence would be even stronger if the chimps had extracted the sap from the trees themselves. “It still leaves the question of whether chimps or gorillas use foods high in ethanol, such as fallen fruit, without human intervention.”last_img read more

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first_imgThe hardest bit of your body is the enamel coating your teeth. But new analyses of fish fossils, as well as genetic analyses of a living fish species, suggest that this specialized material once served a very different function: to toughen some bones and scales of ancient fish. The findings bolster earlier suggestions that ancient fish had enamel-armored scales, and they point to a new scenario for exactly how the substance ended up on teeth.Enamel—an almost pure layer of a 
mineral called hydroxyapatite—coats the teeth of almost all tetrapods (four-limbed creatures) and lobe-finned fish such as 
coelacanths. Most living fish do not produce it, but Per Ahlberg, a paleontologist at Uppsala University in Sweden, found an ancient exception. Well-preserved fossils of an ancient fish called Psaroepis romeri reveal that this 20-centimeter-long minipredator, which prowled the seas between 410 million and 415 million years ago, had enamel in its scales and its skull—but not its teeth, according to a paper by Ahlberg and colleagues in the 24 September issue of Nature.Other teams had found partial fossils of fish with enamel on their scales. But those fragments might not have 
belonged to the same individual, Ahlberg says, so researchers couldn’t be  sure just how the enameled bits were distributed across the body, or if they came from 
individuals at different ages or developmental stages.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Ahlberg’s team instead looked at a single specimen of Psarolepis, slicing through the jawbone, skull bones, and scales to get a microscopic peek at their internal structure and so identify what they were made of. The teeth were naked dentine, the same material that underlies the enamel in your teeth and those of most modern tetrapods. But the scales and skull bones of this ancient fish included some enamel.Researchers had suggested that over millions of years of evolution, hardened structures such as external scales gradually migrated into the mouth and changed shape to become teeth. But the patchy distribution of enamel in Psarolepis may suggest a different scenario, in which the pattern of enamel production, rather than the of shape and location of already enameled structures, shifted over time.The team also analyzed the genome of the spotted gar 
(Lepisosteus oculatus), a modern-day species that produces a hard enamel-like material called ganoine that covers its scales. The genome shows that gar can produce two of the three proteins needed to make enamel, and suggests that ganoine is essentially a scale-coating version of enamel. Thus, it offers genetic support for the fossil evidence.These findings “are very interesting,” says Zerina Johanson, a paleobiologist at the Natural History Museum in London. In contrast to previous ideas, the work suggests that hardened structures such as scales may not have physically moved from one place in the body to another as species evolved. Instead, evolution may have shifted the activity of enamelmaking proteins to new body parts.“This may provide a better understanding of what was going on inside primitive vertebrates,” she says.last_img read more

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first_imgThe massive biomedical innovation bill that breezed through the U.S. House of Representatives last summer is moving through the Senate, albeit on much weaker tailwinds. In the first of three scheduled hearings, the Senate’s health committee today approved an initial set of bipartisan proposals aimed at speeding the discovery and development of new medical treatments. Lawmakers hope the bills can be combined into a companion to the House bill, known as 21st Century Cures.This piecemeal approach, which Senate health committee chair Lamar Alexander (R–TN) laid out last month, signaled partisan tensions over certain proposals in 21st Century Cures, notably an $8.75 billion boost for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) over 5 years, which in the House proposal would consist of dedicated mandatory funding, not subject to the annual budget appropriations process and budget caps. (The House bill proposes selling oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserves to create the needed revenue.)Alexander has been resistant to that approach, together with Republican colleagues on the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions committee. Today he indicated that the NIH windfall isn’t off the table, and that he is personally “willing to consider using mandatory funds” to support five priority areas: President Obama’s precision medicine initiative, the recently announced cancer moonshot, the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative, a system of grants for “big ideas” across NIH institutes, and support for young investigators. (Those first three programs are also priorities in President Obama’s 2017 budget request released today.) But he noted that any proposal would need to find that funding by reducing existing mandatory spending elsewhere. And because many Republicans on the committee are resistant to mandatory funding, Alexander said he will reserve the question of how to pay for an NIH increase for the debate on the full Senate floor.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Instead, the committee today approved seven less controversial measures, including a bill to create a “Next Generation of Researchers Initiative” within the NIH Office of the Director to promote early-career researchers—also a priority in the House bill—and another to ease regulatory requirements for drugs targeting rare genetic diseases by allowing their sponsors to rely on data from previous submissions to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Those baby steps are encouraging to some. “There was a lot of holding of breath on the outside—are they actually going to start to put some stuff out?” says Margaret Anderson, executive director of FasterCures, a think tank in Washington, D.C. “Now that that’s happening, I think there’s a sense of momentum … and I get the sense that the committee’s not done putting forward bills.”But some Democratic committee members are unwilling to save for later the issue of mandatory funding for NIH and FDA. “A handful of smaller targeted changes like we’re voting on today won’t get us where we need to be,” Elizabeth Warren (D–MA), told the committee today. She accused Republican lawmakers of diverting the conversation from research funding and trying to loosen FDA’s requirements for drugmakers at the expense of patient safety. “If Republicans are determined to gut [FDA] under the guise of improving it, then get ready for a fight on this,” said Warren, who pledged not to support any more “so-called ‘innovation’ legislation” until the committee reached a bipartisan agreement that includes guaranteed NIH funding.Richard Burr (R–NC) heaped on the pessimism. “There’s not going to be an innovation bill,” he said. “I plan to write one, but I doubt there’s one that can get out of this committee.”Despite the dark clouds, a preliminary agenda for the panel’s 9 March hearing includes discussion about “bipartisan legislation to modernize [FDA] and [NIH],” including ways to support both precision medicine and the cancer moonshot.last_img read more

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