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Are 3 wheels better than 4?The Fast Lane Car recently had the opportunity to test drive the new all-electric three-wheeler Arcimoto FUV (Fun Utility Vehicle), which is now in pilot production stage.The rainy weather was not necessarily welcoming for testing a vehicle like this, but with the small roof it’s better covered than an ordinary motorcycle anyways (the Arcimoto is typically classified as a motorcycle).TFL now says that Arcimoto feels like a big scooter and is solid and flat in the corners and quiet.See Also Is this the future of city driving? Well, it depends if you are willing to pay $11,900 (base model price without accessories and customization) and whether or not you accept that it’s more motorcycle than a car. In sunny states, it could be an excellent city runabout.Arcimoto FUV Arcimoto Kicks Off Production Of Pilot Run Of Electric FUV Source: Electric Vehicle News If You Don’t Watch This Arcimoto Q2 Video, You’ll Regret It Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on October 17, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle News Arcimoto Gets Amped, Delivers On Signature Series Promise read more

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first_imgProgress on Tesla’s Shanghai Gigafactory continues, but is it moving quickly enough?Source: Electric Vehicle Newslast_img

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first_imgIn this edition of Climate Crisis Weekly:A study finds a massive worldwide reforestation effort could be the best way to mitigate emissions.Scientists plan to trap their ship in the Arctic ice to study climate change.The hottest June on record, and record heat in Alaska.Climate change could cost the global economy $69 trillion by 2100.Antarctic sea ice hits record lows.And more… more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe to the podcast.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1zk7Eb8r-s&list=PL_Qf0A10763mA7Byw9ncZqxjke6Gjz0MtThe post Climate Crisis Weekly: Planting a trillion trees, scientists to get trapped in Arctic ice, more appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forwardlast_img read more

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first_imgIts now official. . . The Preserve the Peshastin Mill Waterfront has succeeded in raising $435,000 dollar to purchase 14 acres of Wenatchee Riverfront property for public access. It was a News Radio 560 KPQ listener who put them over the top. Bob Parlette and Rollie Schmitten joined Steve Hair on today’s The Agenda program. Listen to podcast below . . . Audio Playerhttps://kpq.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/072016-PEshastinRAW.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.last_img read more

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first_img Source:https://www.loyolamedicine.org/ Jun 19 2018A Loyola Medicine study is providing further evidence that floppy eyelids may be a sign of sleep apnea.In a study published in the journal The Ocular Surface, corresponding author Charles Bouchard, MD, and colleagues reported that 53 percent of sleep apnea patients had upper eyelids that were lax and rubbery. The most severe cases of sleep apnea were associated with the most pronounced cases of floppy eyelids, but this association was not strong enough to be considered statistically significant.Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when the upper airway becomes blocked repeatedly, preventing restful sleep. Symptoms include loud snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue. OSA affects an estimated 34 percent of men and 17 percent of women, but up to 80 percent those affected have not been diagnosed. A 2010 Harvard Medical School report estimated that moderate-to-severe sleep apnea was associated with $115 billion in healthcare costs, behind only cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease.Related StoriesSleep disorders in patients with low back pain linked to increased healthcare visits, costsSleep makes synapses ready for new learningI’m a CPAP dropout: Why many lose sleep over apnea treatmentLax, rubbery eyelids are found in people who have one of three related conditions: lax eyelid condition (rubbery lids); lax eyelid syndrome (lax eyelids plus conjunctivitis); and floppy eyelid syndrome (lax eyelid syndrome in obese young men), said Dr. Bouchard, chair of Loyola Medicine’s department of ophthalmology.The Loyola study included 35 patients who were evaluated by Loyola sleep specialists for suspicion of sleep apnea. Overnight sleep studies confirmed that 32 of these patients had sleep apnea. Examinations by ophthalmologists found that 17 of the 32 sleep apnea patients (53 percent) also had lax eyelid condition.Among the methods ophthalmologists employed to measure lax eyelids was a measuring instrument developed at Loyola called a laxometer. Researchers hypothesized that this objective measuring technique would provide a more accurate predictor of sleep apnea.It’s unclear why sleep apnea is linked to floppy eyelids. One theory suggests the condition is associated with low-grade inflammation that causes degradation of elastin, a protein that allows skin and other tissues to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.”Obstructive sleep apnea is a severely underdiagnosed disease, and without treatment leads to increased morbidity and mortality,” researchers concluded. “It is the duty of today’s ophthalmologist to be diligent in making the diagnosis of lax eyelid syndrome in the ophthalmology clinic. They are in the unique position to identify patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnea and address this critical public health problem.”last_img read more

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first_imgThe participants—all of whom had normal or, thanks to glasses or contacts, corrected-to-normal vision—sat before a computer and watched as two lines of different lengths flashed before their eyes. Joined by a single horizontal line at the top of the screen, this asymmetrical “n” shape appeared for a randomly assigned amount of time, sometimes as few as 6 milliseconds. The participants’ only job was to choose whether the longer line had appeared on the left or the right side of the shape by pushing a button. They were allowed to take as long as they wished to deliberate, Ritchie explains. (So boring was the 30-minute task that the elderly participants “groaned like hell” at its mention during the recent Lothian cohort reunion pictured above, he says.)Next, Ritchie and colleagues compared the amount of time it had taken for participants to make their choices, called inspection time, and examined how it tracked with their performance on four standard intelligence tests. All focused on solving problems based on novel information: For example, one test required recreating a visual pattern with colored blocks, while another required participants to listen to a list of numbers and recite them backward. Over time, the decline in participants’ scores on the intelligence tests was strongly correlated with an increase in their inspection times, suggesting that it might be possible to use the simpler task as a proxy for more complicated intelligence tests in hard-to-reach elderly populations, the scientists report today in Current Biology.The results strengthen the hypothesis that the complex intelligence we associate with geniuses like Albert Einstein may actually be driven by very simple processing skills in vision, hearing, and other senses, says John Gabrieli, a neuroscientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge who wasn’t involved with the research. As we age, our brains may become like “an extremely slow computer that can’t run more complicated operations,” he says. More research is needed to establish whether loss of visual processing speed actually leads to slower higher level thinking, but if it does, it might be possible to help 70-year-olds maintain intelligence by training them to make these simple visual judgments faster, he says. That’s easier said than done, however, Ritchie notes. One of his colleagues tried to improve his performance on the task over the course of 100 days, but “stopped getting better on the second day”—which doesn’t bode well for the test’s usefulness as a brain-training exercise. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img Email Old age may make us wiser, but it rarely makes us quicker. In addition to slowing down physically, most people lose points on intelligence tests as they enter their golden years. Now, new research suggests the loss of certain types of cognitive skills with age may stem from problems with basic sensory tasks, such as making quick judgments based on visual information. Although there’s no clear causal link between the two types of thinking yet, the new work could provide a simple, affordable way to track mental decline in senior citizens, scientists say.Since the 1970s, researchers who study intelligence have hypothesized that smartness, as measured on standard IQ tests, may hinge on the ability to quickly and efficiently sample sensory information from the environment, says Stuart Ritchie, a psychologist at the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom. Today it’s well known that people who score high on such tests do, indeed, tend to process such information more quickly than those who do poorly, but it’s not clear how these measures change with age, Ritchie says.Studying older people over time can be challenging given their uncertain health, but Ritchie and his colleagues had an unusual resource in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a group of people born in 1936 whose mental function has been periodically tested by the Scottish government since 1947—their first IQ test was at age 11. After recruiting more than 600 cohort members for their study, Ritchie and colleagues tracked their scores on a simple visual task three times over 10 years, repeating the test at the mean ages of 70, 73, and 76.last_img read more

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first_imgScientists have identified a natural microbial defender in the body’s fight against Clostridium difficile. The diarrhea-inducing and sometimes life-threatening bacterium lurks in hospitals and flourishes in patients whose intestinal microbes have been decimated by antibiotics. Now, a set of experiments shows that a normal microbial resident of the mouse and human gut, called Clostridium scindens, seems to help curtail C. difficile infection in rodents by creating bile acid in the intestine. If that holds true in people, pills containing the bacteria could be both a preventative measure in patients at risk and an alternative to the successful strategy, off-putting to many, of fecal transplants.In the United States, about 14,000 people a year die from C. difficile, and cases are on the rise. Researchers have learned that by depleting resident microbes, antibiotics make the body more hospitable to C. difficile spores. More recently, they’ve found that fecal transplants appear to restore balance to the bacterial community, as do feces-filled capsules.But many researchers are eager to move past the poop, says Trevor Lawley, a microbiologist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, U.K. “If you have a patient show up, you have to identify a donor, get them to poop in a pot, and then put it in a pill.” The process is time-consuming, unpleasant, and not without risks, he says. The ideal treatment would be an isolated mixture of helpful bacteria: “You could just go to your refrigerator and grab your capsules and tell them to take a few.” First, though, scientists need to know which individual bacteria are most helpful, and why. For 4 years, infectious disease researcher Eric Pamer and his colleagues at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City have studied the body’s elaborate defense mechanisms against C. difficile. In earlier research, they had found that certain antibiotics caused more severe and longer lasting susceptibility to the infection than others. Knowing that each treatment has a unique effect on the makeup of the microbiome, the collection of microorganisms inside us, “we used the different antibiotics as tools,” Pamer says, “to start to pin down which bacteria are associated with resistance.”That new research began in mice, which received one of three antibiotics and were then fed C. difficile spores. After identifying 11 bacteria from rodent guts that correlated with resistance to the intestinal infection, Pamer and his group turned to humans. They sequenced bacterial DNA in the feces of 24 bone marrow transplant patients who had received antibiotics. Half of them had developed C. difficile infection, whereas the other half had colonies of C. difficile in their intestines but no disease, suggesting that something about their microbiomes made them more resilient. The top microbial defenders in mice and people weren’t identical, but one species ranked high on both lists: C. scindens.That was encouraging news, Pamer says, because what’s already known about C. scindens fits right into the story of how C. difficile interacts with the gut. Other groups have shown that C. scindens makes enzymes that chemically alter the bile acids made in the liver, transforming them into so-called secondary bile acids in the large intestine. And these secondary bile acids have been shown to inhibit C. difficile growth in a dish.Indeed, feeding mice a dose of C. scindens after antibiotics reduced the number of C. difficile bacteria that were able to proliferate in the gut roughly 100-fold. And a group of mice treated with C. scindens mixed with three other bacteria similar to the strains identified by DNA sequencing lost less weight—about 10% versus nearly 20% in controls—and had better survival rates—100% versus 50%—after exposure to C. difficile. (The multibacteria cocktail yielded better results than C. scindens alone, though the researchers don’t know its mechanisms of action.) C. scindens also increased the abundance of secondary bile acids in the gut, Pamer and his colleagues report online today in Nature.This isn’t the first study to suggest a role for certain bacteria in resisting C. difficile, says Vincent Young, a microbiologist and infectious disease physician at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His group has found that the bacterial family Lachnospiraceae also has a suppressant effect, for example. But the clear link to bile production makes this an important finding because the precise mechanisms of bacterial defense have been largely missing from existing studies, he says. “We know who’s there, but we don’t necessarily know what they’re doing.”Lawley agrees that understanding how this bacteria protects against C. difficile will make it a stronger candidate for potential testing in humans down the line. “We have to be careful about what we’re putting into patients, because most of these bugs, we don’t understand their biology,” he says. “I think by having a mechanism, it gives us a little bit more confidence.” He points out that C. scindens didn’t completely get rid of disease in the mice, which would be important for eliminating the risk of relapse. But as Pamer’s group and several others start concocting feces-free C. difficile treatments, Lawley believes “this is probably one bug that could be considered in the mix.” Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. 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first_imgR&D TAX CREDIT Email NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION POLICY The last 2 years have provided a vivid reminder that improving U.S. science education will depend at least as much on grassroots efforts as on the federal government. The administration’s biggest gambit—a plan to restructure the $3 billion federal investment in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education—went down in flames after lawmakers from both parties and community leaders denounced it as unwise and poorly designed.Nobody expects the next Congress to pass any bold new STEM education initiatives. But a hiatus in Washington, D.C., hasn’t hindered state-level progress on NGSS and campus efforts to improve undergraduate science courses. Taking it slow in the classroomA dozen states have adopted NGSS since they were unveiled in April 2013. The voluntary national standards for teaching science in elementary and secondary schools, drawn up by a coalition of 26 states, would require students to use their knowledge of scientific phenomena and practices to solve real-world problems.Now, many state and local education officials are scrambling to provide teachers with the additional training they will need. With help from the National Academies, AAAS (which publishes ScienceInsider), and other professional societies, they are aligning new curricular materials to the standards and revising assessments of student learning. Advocates hope that a gradual rollout of NGSS over several years will help them escape the public controversy that has engulfed the Common Core, a comparable set of standards in English and mathematics adopted en masse in 2010 by 43 states and the District of Columbia. The Common Core has generated rising public opposition, and become an issue in partisan politics, as the standards begin to show up in the classroom.“The key is to take time to make sure everything is in place,” counsels Lillian Lowery, the state school superintendent for Maryland, which adopted the new science standards in June 2013 but has decided not to implement them until the 2017 to 2018 academic year. “There will always be opposition, but if you get the facts straight and have a cogent message about what the standards are and are not, then I think things will be okay.” As one Maryland elementary school principal quipped when asked if NGSS advocates can learn anything from how the Common Core was introduced: “They’ve already learned the key lesson: Don’t go first.”Moving quickly on campusA what’s-the-rush mentality may be good for NGSS, but science educators are hoping that research universities will want to move more quickly to become leaders in reshaping how science is taught on their campuses. The Association of American Universities (AAU) in Washington, D.C., for example, has launched a pilot project at eight of its 62 member institutions to tackle the many changes needed to raise the overall quality of instruction. The list includes dismantling the lecture-based approach for entry-level courses, converting “gatekeeper” courses designed to weed students out of certain fields into “gateway” courses, providing institutional incentives for good teaching, and helping faculty acquire the necessary skills. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has reshuffled its programs on undergraduate education to put more emphasis on such reforms, including targeting community colleges and the transition to 4-year institutions.Universities are under more pressure from politicians to show that students are getting their money’s worth, notes Tobin Smith, who oversees the AAU initiative, and improving instruction is one way to meet those demands for greater accountability. But that’s not the only reason this issue has moved into prime time, he argues.“We know what works,” he says, citing “the mounting evidence” that interactive learning practices are better than lectures. The growth of MOOCs (massive open online courses) has focused increased attention on instruction, he adds, as well as leading some faculty members to ask, only half in jest, “Will some MIT professor put me out of business?” (The edX project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University has been aggressively fielding MOOCs.)The never-ending competition among institutions—for top talent and a reputation for innovation, among other factors—is also fueling the reform campaign. Half of AAU’s member schools pledged their commitment to change in seeking to become a pilot site, Smith says, and some may have been thinking: “We need to do this if institution X is doing it.”Resistance to reshufflingAlthough STEM educators applaud the changes on campus and in the nation’s classrooms, they have spent the past 2 years on Capitol Hill fighting to preserve the status quo after President Barack Obama delivered a bombshell in his 2014 budget request to Congress. The administration’s proposal for a major reshuffling of how the government spends some $3 billion annually in STEM education funds would have given more money to, and elevated the role of, the Department of Education and NSF, while shrinking activities at mission agencies like the National Institutes of Health (NIH), NASA, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).White House officials billed the reshuffling as a way to increase the payoff from the government’s investment in STEM education across a dozen agencies. But the proposal, which caught both legislators and STEM advocates by surprise, never got off the ground. The higher price tag angered conservatives, who favor a streamlining of federal STEM activities at a lower cost to taxpayers. STEM advocates were incensed by the lack of consultation and seemingly arbitrary reallocation of responsibilities for programs, each of which had their own impassioned advocates. In a rare show of bipartisanship, Democrats and Republicans joined together to make the case that, in the absence of a solid rationale for the changes, the current alignment should be maintained.Shunted to the sidelines during the heated debate was the administration’s new 5-year strategic plan for STEM education. Unveiled a month after the budget bombshell, it promises that federal agencies will work through a coordinating committee called CoSTEM to scale up successful programs and weed out any redundant efforts. In parallel, the administration has enlisted blue-ribbon advisory panels, hosted highly visible events like science fairs and Maker Faires, and heavily promoted what it calls public-private partnerships aimed at tackling such thorny—and expensive—problems as improving the quality of teacher training and increasing the number of STEM graduates.But with just 2 years left for the Obama administration, the community remains skeptical of its intentions. The sudden departure in June 2012 of Nobelist Carl Wieman, for health reasons, robbed STEM education of its most prominent advocate within the White House. It’s also not clear how much political capital the administration is now willing to spend on these issues.“The restructuring plan hurt the administration tremendously within the STEM community,” says Martin Storksdieck, director of a new STEM research and learning center at Oregon State University, Corvallis, and the former director of the National Academies’ Board on Science Education. “And the fallout is a pervasive mistrust. CoSTEM is a good idea, but people are worried that the administration will propose more cuts [in its next budget] in an attempt to appease Congress.”Although Congress rejected the overall plan, it did inflict some collateral damage to STEM education programs at specific agencies. Last year, NIH shuttered its Office of Science Education and paused a program funding science and health museums after agency officials said K–12 and informal science education didn’t belong in NIH’s portfolio. NASA has dropped education programs within its science mission directorate, and NOAA has shrunk several education programs tied to programmatic activities.Still, education advocates pride themselves on being resilient. “The silver lining is that the controversy has focused more attention on STEM education,” Storksdieck says. “And if people can figure out how to work within the new CoSTEM structure, then maybe something good will come from it.”ScienceInsider’s After Election 2014 series will look at a range of issues that will be on policymakers’ agenda once the voters have spoken on 4 November. Look for stories on:BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH FUNDING FUSION SCIENCE Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img STEM EDUCATION This story is the third in ScienceInsider’s After Election 2014 series. Through Election Day on 4 November, we will periodically examine research issues that will face U.S. lawmakers when they return to Washington, D.C., for a lame-duck session and when a new Congress convenes in January. Click here to see all the stories published so far; click here for a list of published and planned stories.Today, a look at how states and universities aren’t waiting for Washington to improve science and math education.The debut of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in a handful of states and a growing awareness among research universities that they must improve undergraduate instruction are arguably the two biggest recent changes in the U.S. science education landscape. They also embody the political adage of thinking globally and acting locally, a timely message as the Obama administration heads into the homestretch and voters prepare to elect a new Congress. STREAM AND WETLAND PROTECTION EASING RESEARCH REGULATION ADVANCED MANUFACTURING 21ST CENTURY CURESlast_img read more

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first_imgOur electronic gadgets are notoriously difficult to recycle and have created waste problems few know how to deal with. The challenges of breaking down electronics begin with their plastic encasement: It is tedious to take apart, yet hazardous to burn or melt. Now researchers report that they have designed new plastics that break down upon exposure to light. Plastics are composed of long, repeating chains of small molecules. The researchers heated a solution of molecules derived from fructose—the basic building blocks for their plastics—and molecules that can absorb light to make long chains that form the plastics, which appeared as pale brown solids. The light-absorbing molecules break off from the chains when exposed to ultraviolet light at 350 nanometers wavelength, triggering degradation of the plastics. In a proof-of-concept experiment, the new plastics dissolved into a clear solution after being exposed to ultraviolet light for 3 hours, indicating that they were completely reduced to their soluble building-block molecules. The building-block molecules can be recovered to make new plastic, reducing demand for raw materials and waste generation, the team reports online this month in Angewandte Chemie International Edition. More research is needed to understand how the use of a light-absorbing component influences the plastics’ properties, such as strength and durability, they say, before improved versions can be developed and commercialized.last_img read more

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first_imgWith its second term wrapping up, President Obama’s administration wants to fit at least one more high-profile “initiative” into its scientific legacy. Having launched efforts to map the human brain, fight drug-resistant bacteria, advance precision medicine, and cure cancer, the White House has now set its sights on the untold number of enigmatic microbes that define our environment and fill our bodies.The National Microbiome Initiative, rolled out in an event today by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), aims to fund cross-disciplinary projects that would help understand the function of individual microbes and map how they interact in communities—from those that may fend off disease in the human intestines, to those that help plants pull nutrients from soil, to those that capture and release carbon dioxide in the ocean.The initiative would allocate $121 million in federal money—from funding already appropriated and included in the president’s 2017 budget request—to microbiome-focused research grants at NASA, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Private foundations, companies, and academic institutions have pledged another $400 million, including $100 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to study the effects of the microbiome on malnutrition and ways to manipulate soil microbes to improve crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img The initiative’s underlying goal, says microbiologist Jeff Miller at University of California, Los Angeles, should be to enable experiments testing cause and effect—not just showing inconclusive associations that have so far been typical of microbiome research. “We have incredibly interesting correlations between a certain type of bacterial community and obesity, or type 2 diabetes, or whether a plant is going to grow fast or not,” says Miller, among 17 researchers who helped inform OSTP by laying out their vision for a “Unified Microbiome Initiative” last year in Science. “We’re generating hypotheses, but we’ve kind of lacked the tools to rigorously test them.”That word—“tools”—appears 17 times in the White House fact sheet released today. What might this new set of tools look like? One, Miller says, might be a precise way to eliminate a single microbial species while leaving its neighbors untouched—perhaps with a targeted nanoparticle or the precise editing of a key gene. Although it’s now possible to quickly sequence the DNA from a mixed sample of microbes, the role of individual genes—and the way species influence one another in their natural environments—are largely unknown.Another priority: nanoscale imaging methods for observing groups of microbes without disrupting them. “We take a complex community and we grind it up and we sequence the parts,” Miller says. “If you look outside the window right now and imagine what would happen if you took that in a blender and then tried to study it, you wouldn’t really be getting much more than just what the components are, and we know that these communities are highly structured.”A tool at the top of the wish list for microbial ecologist Janet Jansson at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, would be higher-throughput mass spectrometry—a technology that allows researchers to sort through the proteins in a microbial sample. Genetic sequencing “only gets you so far,” she explains. “If you want to understand more about the functions that are carried out in the communities, then it’s desirable to know about the proteins that they are producing, and also the metabolites.”The burst of White House enthusiasm may do little more than formalize and collate investments that were likely already brewing at research centers, disease foundations, and private companies. The diabetes research foundation JDRF, for example, intends to spend $10 million over the next 5 years on microbial changes influencing type 1 diabetes. Others link up collaborators under a new title, such as the $1.3 million new microbiome center, run jointly by the University of Chicago in Illinois; the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts; and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont, Illinois. But the initiative aims to send the same message researchers are getting from the microbes they study: that the combined community is more productive than its isolated parts. Emaillast_img read more

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first_img Email CLAUDIAD/ISTOCKPHOTO The research started as a search for synchrony in earthquake timing. Individual oscillators, be they fireflies, heart muscles, or metronomes, can end up vibrating in synchrony as a result of some kind of cross-talk—or some common influence. To Bendick, it didn’t seem a far jump to consider the faults that cause earthquakes, with their cyclical buildup of strain and violent discharge, as “really noisy, really crummy oscillators,” she says. She and Bilham dove into the data, using the only complete earthquake catalog for the past 100 years: magnitude-7 and larger earthquakes.In work published in August in Geophysical Research Letters they reported two patterns: First, major quakes appeared to cluster in time—although not in space. And second, the number of large earthquakes seemed to peak at 32-year intervals. The earthquakes could be somehow talking to each other, or an external force could be nudging the earth into rupture.Exploring such global forces, the researchers eventually discovered the match with the length of day. Although weather patterns such as El Nino can drive day length to vary back and forth by a millisecond over a year or more, a periodic, decades-long fluctuation of several milliseconds—in particular, its point of peak slow down about every three decades or so—lined up with the quake trend perfectly. “Of course that seems sort of crazy,” Bendick says. But maybe it isn’t. When day length changes over decades, Earth’s magnetic field also develops a temporary ripple. Researchers think slight changes in the flow of the molten iron of the outer core may be responsible for both effects. Just what happens is uncertain—perhaps a bit of the molten outer core sticks to the mantle above. That might change the flow of the liquid metal, altering the magnetic field, and transfer enough momentum between the mantle and the core to affect day length.Seismologists aren’t used to thinking about the planet’s core, buried 2900 kilometers beneath the crust where quakes happen. But they should, Bilham said during his talk here. The core is “quite close to us. It’s closer than New York from here,” he said.At the equator, Earth spins 460 meters per second. Given this high velocity, it’s not absurd to think that a slight mismatch in speed between the solid crust and mantle and the liquid core could translate into a force somehow nudging quakes into synchrony, Molnar says. Of course, he adds, “It might be nonsense.” But the evidence for some kind of link is compelling, says geophysicist Michael Manga of the University of California, Berkeley. “I’ve worked on earthquakes triggered by seasonal variation, melting snow. His correlation is much better than what I’m used to seeing.”One way or another, says James Dolan, a geologist at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, “we’re going to know in 5 years.” That’s because Earth’s rotation began a periodic slow-down 4-plus years ago. Beginning next year, Earth should expect five more major earthquakes a year than average—between 17 to 20 quakes, compared with the anomalously low four so far this year. If the pattern holds, it will put a new spin on earthquake forecasting. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The number of major earthquakes, like the magnitude-7 one that devastated Haiti in 2010, seems to be correlated with minute fluctuations in day length. center_img By Paul VoosenOct. 30, 2017 , 1:45 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sloshing of Earth’s core may spike major earthquakes SEATTLE—The world doesn’t stop spinning. But every so often, it slows down. For decades, scientists have charted tiny fluctuations in the length of Earth’s day: Gain a millisecond here, lose a millisecond there. Last week at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America here, two geophysicists argued that these minute changes could be enough to influence the timing of major earthquakes—and potentially help forecast them.During the past 100 years, Earth’s slowdowns have correlated surprisingly well with periods with a global increase in magnitude-7 and larger earthquakes, according to Roger Bilham of the University of Colorado (CU) in Boulder and Rebecca Bendick at the University of Montana in Missoula. Usefully, the spike, which adds two to five more quakes than typical, happens well after the slow-down begins. “The Earth offers us a 5-years heads up on future earthquakes, which is remarkable,” says Bilham, who presented the work.Most seismologists agree that earthquake prediction is a minefield. And so far, Bilham and Bendick have only fuzzy, hard-to-test ideas about what might cause the pattern they found. But the finding is too provocative to ignore, other researchers say. “The correlation they’ve found is remarkable, and deserves investigation,” says Peter Molnar, a geologist also at CU.last_img read more

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first_img By Elizabeth PennisiSep. 5, 2018 , 8:00 AM Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Radha Krueger/Florida Museum of Natural History/University of Florida DNA nails source of New Yorkers’ shark bites Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe It’s a tourism board’s nightmare come true. In mid-July, two teenagers were bitten within minutes of each other while wading off beaches on Fire Island, a barrier island along the south shore of New York’s Long Island. There, thousands of locals and tourists sit blanket-to-blanket every day enjoying the surf and sun—and trying not to think about the movie Jaws.Great whites were mentioned as possible attackers, as they are often found off the end of Long Island. But when lifeguards dug out a chunk of tooth from one of the teen’s wounds, officials decided to send it out for identification to the International Shark Attack File at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville, which has tracked shark bites since 1958.The sliver wasn’t quite big enough to compare to other teeth, so researchers there cleaned it and took a DNA sample from its interior. They then sequenced a small section and compared it to the same stretch of DNA from 900 shark species around the world. The match: a sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus), researchers report today in Nature. The second teen was likely bitten by the same kind of shark. Despite its name, the 200-kilogram, 3-meter-long fish isn’t much of a tiger. Over 60 years, just 15 human bites have been reported to the International Shark Attack File, none of them fatal. Instead, scientists say, the sand tiger shark likely bites unintentionally when it pursues schools of fish into shallow water crowded with people.This is a rare instance in which rescuers have saved shark teeth shards for further analysis; nearly 70% of bites in the attack file are unidentified. If more rescuers bagged the debris from shark bite wounds instead of tossing it, say scientists, DNA studies could easily bring that percentage down—and lead to a better understanding of which sharks are the most dangerous and why.last_img read more

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first_imgThe symptoms of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction pointed to abnormalities in myelin, the fatty sheath around nerve fibers that helps them transmit brain signals. More than 10 years ago, stem cell biologist Mark Noble at the University of Rochester in New York and his colleagues reported that brain cells called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which ultimately help form myelin, were exquisitely sensitive to chemotherapy. But later work suggested OPCs could rapidly repopulate in a healthy brain, and the long-term effects of chemotherapy on OPC cells remained mysterious.Monje began the new study almost 7 years ago. First, she and her colleagues examined stored brain tissue samples from children and young adults who had died from various cancers, and control patients who’d died of something else. Some had received a host of chemotherapy drugs, and some had never gotten chemotherapy. In those who’d had chemo, OPCs were markedly depleted, but only in the white matter of the brain, which is a heavily myelinated brain region. The researchers focused on a particular chemotherapy drug, methotrexate, which is especially associated with long-term cognitive problems.Monje’s team wanted to confirm the findings in just-donated tissue, which was offered to them by the families of two children: a 3-year-old whose brain cancer was treated with high doses of methotrexate, and a 10-year-old whose brain cancer progressed so rapidly that there was no time to administer much therapy. Again, the child who’d received methotrexate—with the last dose well over a month before he died—had a near-wipeout of OPCs in white matter. The other child did not.Next up for the scientists was designing a mouse model of chemo brain caused by methotrexate. The mice got the same chemotherapy treatment as the 3-year-old, adjusted for their tiny body size. The animals “have a very clear impairment in attention and short-term memory,” Monje says. The animals also had the same decrease in white matter OPCs. Studying the organ 6 months after chemotherapy ended—a long time in the life of a mouse—the researchers saw that “the myelin sheaths were thinner,” Monje says, which would disrupt brain signaling.The big question for Monje was whether chemotherapy was directly killing OPCs or creating an environment that was hostile to them. To answer this, her team transplanted healthy OPCs into the brains of mice previously administered methotrexate. Those healthy cells showed the same disregulation, Monje says. Typically, the brain replenishes OPCs as needed, but in the mice, it didn’t. Something in the brain’s environment was causing the cells’ decay and disappearance.Ultimately, the story came full circle back to the microglia that Monje had first eyed more than 15 years ago. Additional experiments on brain cells revealed methotrexate activates microglia in the brain’s white matter, causing a cascade of effects and ultimately depleting OPCs. Because several compounds that deplete microglia are in clinical trials for cancer and other indications, the scientists were able to test one of them on their chemo brain–affected animals. They found that depleting microglia was effective: It restored OPCs, normalized myelin, and rescued short-term memory, the research team reports today in Cell. That means, they write, that the microglia are likely behind chemo brain for this particular drug.“The authors did a great job at trying to look at this phenomenon from very different angles,” says Schagen, making sure, for example, that findings in brain tissue also held true in mice. The activation of microglia, Schagen says, looks like an “important” direct mechanism. But Schagen, who has studied the effects of several chemotherapy drugs on mouse brains, also stresses that these findings are limited to methotrexate; other chemotherapy drugs may cause cognitive problems in different ways. The dose and its timing may also affect a drug’s brain effects, Schagen says.Monje says there’s a lot left to do before launching a clinical trial of any potential chemo brain fighter. One question is how long any such drug must be used. Another is what molecular mechanisms are driving the brain cells to behave as they do. But she’s hopeful that, after many years of trying, she and others are moving in the right direction. Cognitive problems are a common side effect after chemotherapy. A new study suggests how one type of chemo may contribute. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) By Jennifer Couzin-FrankelDec. 6, 2018 , 11:10 AM JPagetRMphotos/Alamy Stock Photo How does chemo brain work? One cancer drug might interfere with brain signalingcenter_img For the millions of people treated for cancer, “chemo brain” can be an unnerving and disabling side effect. It causes memory lapses, trouble concentrating, and an all-around mental fog, which appear linked to the treatment and not the disease. Although the cognitive effects often fade after chemotherapy ends, for some people the fog persists for years, even decades. And doctors and researchers have long wondered why. Now, a new study suggests an answer in the case of one chemotherapy drug: Brain cells called microglia may orchestrate chemo brain by disrupting other cells that help maintain the brain’s communication system.“I can’t tell you how many patients I see who look at me when I explain [chemo brain] and say, ‘I’ve been living with this for 10 years and thought I was crazy,’” says Michelle Monje, a pediatric neuro-oncologist and neuroscientist at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. It’s still mostly a mystery how common long-term cognitive impairment is after chemo. In one recent study by clinical neuropsychologist Sanne Schagen at the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam, it affected 16% of breast cancer survivors 6 months after treatment.Monje began to probe the cognitive effects of cancer treatment in the early 2000s, starting with radiation, a therapy that can be far more debilitating than chemotherapy. A Science paper she and her colleagues published in 2003 suggested radiation affected a type of brain cell called microglia, which protect the brain against inflammation. Just like immune cells in the blood, microglia—which make up at least 10% of all brain cells—become activated during injury or infection. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! 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first_img By Jeffrey MervisMar. 1, 2019 , 1:55 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) National Cancer Institute Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe NIH letters asking about undisclosed foreign ties rattle U.S. universities The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently sent letters to dozens of major U.S. research universities asking them to provide information about specific faculty members with NIH funding who are believed to have links to foreign governments that the Bethesda, Maryland–based institute did not know about.Universities are scrambling to respond to the unprecedented queries, which appear to be NIH’s response to demands from members of Congress and national security officials that federal agencies do a better job of monitoring any foreign interactions fostered by U.S. government funding. The goal is to prevent the theft of intellectual property and the transfer of technologies that could threaten U.S. security. But some academic administrators worry the exercise could cast a chill over all types of international scientific collaborations.“People have already told me that they are rethinking whether they should continue to work with someone from another country,” says one administrator who requested anonymity. “They say, ‘Maybe I should just do the work myself, or find a U.S.-based collaborator.’” The official was one of several who confirmed to ScienceInsider that their university had received such a letter; all requested anonymity. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email Another fear is that the inquiry may become a vehicle to impugn the loyalty of any faculty member—and especially any foreign-born scientists—who maintains overseas ties. For example, ScienceInsider has learned that at some institutions, every researcher flagged by NIH is Chinese-American.The vaguely worded letters don’t contain specific accusations. Rather, they ask the university to explain a faculty member’s apparent failure to disclose a foreign connection to NIH.It is not clear how the agency developed its list of targeted researchers. One possibility is a data-mining exercise designed to flag cases in which a scientist cites a relationship to a foreign entity in a journal article or other public document that wasn’t disclosed in their NIH grant application or annual progress report to the agency. University officials have told ScienceInsider that some allegations have turned out to be unfounded, either because no such relationship exists or because NIH was unaware that it had been disclosed.Last summer, NIH Director Francis Collins hinted that such personalized letters might be on their way. In a 20 August 2018 missive to more than 10,000 institutions, he asserted that “threats to the integrity of U.S. biomedical research exist” and highlighted the failure to disclose “substantial resources from other organizations, including foreign governments.” Collins wrote that “in the weeks and months ahead you may be hearing from [NIH] regarding … requests about specific … personnel from your institution.”NIH officials have declined to discuss any aspect of the process. But one university administrator told ScienceInsider that a wave of letters sent in January targeted 77 institutions. NIH typically asked the schools to reply within 1 month but didn’t specify how universities were to obtain the requested information or how the agency might use the answers.One possibility, however, is that NIH could refer the matter to its parent agency, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). A failure to disclose foreign ties on an NIH grant application violates long-standing departmental rules and could lead to sanctions. (Such disclosure is part of a broader NIH requirement that scientists must declare “all financial resources … in direct support of [their] research endeavors.”) Last month. Senator Charles Grassley (R–IA) revealed that NIH has asked HHS to investigate 12 such cases, but the lawmaker did not say how NIH learned of the allegations.NIH’s description of what kinds of foreign ties and activities are covered by the disclosure policy leaves a lot of ambiguity, according to several university officials. For example, must a researcher disclose an honorary degree from a foreign university, or only a joint appointment to that university? Do fees a researcher gets from consulting represent a source of “direct support” for their research? Should researchers disclose a collaboration with a foreign scientist in which no funds are co-mingled, but that results in a co-authored publication in which the U.S. scientist cites the foreign colleague’s source of funding as a matter of professional courtesy?University officials say it’s never been clear whether disclosure rules also apply to research done on a faculty member’s own time, for example, during the summer if they receive only a 9-month salary from their university. Many universities don’t pay too much attention to what faculty members are doing while they are off the payroll, so long as it doesn’t interfere or conflict with their teaching and administrative duties.In discussions with university administrators, NIH officials have cited three ways that undeclared foreign ties can damage the research enterprise. The first is by stealing a researcher’s time from other projects, leading to what NIH calls a conflict of commitment. The second is having the work be largely redundant with an existing NIH grant and, thus, a waste of government funds. The third relates to the size of the investment; a large foreign contribution, NIH officials have said, creates “a substantial distortion” of NIH’s portfolio.In the past, university officials say, any confusion over the disclosure rules would be worked out amicably in discussions with NIH. But one academic research administrator who requested anonymity worries that the wave of letters suggest a once collegial relationship may have turned adversarial.“I’m supposed to be fostering our institution’s relationship with government funding agencies,” the official says. “But these letters strike a very different tone. And to be honest, I don’t have the bandwidth to be an auditor as well as a facilitator.”More worrisome, the official says, is the message it could be sending to U.S. researchers: If you want to avoid trouble, don’t stray beyond the border in pursuit of the next breakthrough in science.last_img read more

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first_img Pirate’s gold may not be that far off, as there are valuable metals embedded in potato-size nodules thousands of meters down in the depths of the ocean. Host Meagan Cantwell talks with Staff Writer Paul Voosen about the first deep-sea test of a bus-size machine designed to scoop up these nodules, and its potential impact on the surrounding ecosystem.In an expedition well above sea level, the Hayabusa2 spacecraft touched down on the asteroid Ryugu last month. And although the craft won’t return to Earth until 2020, researchers have learned a lot about Ryugu in the meantime. Meagan speaks with Seiji Sugita, a professor at the University of Tokyo and principal investigator of the Optical Navigation Camera of Hayabusa 2, about Ryugu’s parent body, and how this study can better inform future asteroid missions.This week’s episode was edited by Podigy.Download transcript (PDF)Listen to previous podcasts.About the Science Podcast[Image: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; Music: Jeffrey Cook] Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency last_img read more

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first_imgBy Express News Service |Srinagar | Published: July 13, 2019 3:58:17 am Doctors take on ‘biased’ media Apart from the canvassing, there is also a social media campaign, with candidates and their supporters pushing their posters and agenda documents.Slogans such as “Our team is less about I, more about we” and “think for all, vote for us” are also splashed across these manifestos. A rally is also scheduled by at least one group campaigning for gaining executive control of the club.The first year of the establishment of the club saw the arrest of a magazine reporter, the questioning of members of the Editors Guild by the NIA and also the killing of Rising Kashmir editor Shujaat Bukhari.In these circumstances, the Guild on Monday called for unity among all members. Polling for 11 executive posts of the 270-member club, the Valley’s first such body, is scheduled to take place on Monday. Apart from the president, vice-president, general secretary and a treasurer, at least seven executive members are to be elected to the panel of the ‘Aiwan-e-Sahafat Kashmir’ or the Kashmir Press Club. In a state where elections are largely marked by massive security crackdowns, the press club elections are generating unusual excitement.Even though there are no reporters’ associations formally associated with the club, the fight is based on alliances or understandings between various groups. These include the Kashmir Working Journalists Association, the Kashmir Editors Guild, the Kashmir Photojournalists Association, the Kashmir Video Journalists Association, the Kashmir Journalists Association, the Anjuman-e-Urdu Sahafat, J&K and others.Manifestos promise a range of benefits for members — health insurance and legal aid to journalists to bullet-proof jackets and housing colonies. After Rahul charge,party men fall in line Related News Advertising Sainiks disrupt launch of Indo-Pak band After Masood Azhar blacklisting, more isolation for Pakistan center_img Polling for 11 executive posts of the club is scheduled on Monday. ExpressCigarettes hanging loosely between their fingers, reporters at Srinagar’s year-old Press Club are engaged in tense negotiations ahead of its first election. With its alliances and defectors, planning and intrigue, the press club polls in Srinagar have all the makings of a presidential campaign lacking only the spectacle of a presidential debate. Advertising Karnataka trust vote today: Speaker’s call on resignations, says SC, but gives rebel MLAs a shield Best Of Express Cabinet asks finance panel to consider securing funds for defence The club’s premises, at Polo View in Srinagar, were handed over by Mehbooba Mufti administration in January 2018 to an interim body overlooking its functioning.Meanwhile, at the club, journalists work their phones as cups of tea are poured and plan for the hectic weekend of campaign that lies ahead. Post Comment(s)last_img read more

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first_img Source:https://www.dndi.org/2018/media-centre/press-releases/ema-recommends-fexinidazole-first-all-oral-treatment-sleeping-sickness/ Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Nov 16 2018The European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has adopted a positive scientific opinion of fexinidazole, the first all-oral treatment that has been shown to be efficacious for both stages of sleeping sickness. This approval is a result of clinical trials led by the non-profit research and development organization DNDi and an application submitted by Sanofi. The decision paves the way for the distribution of fexinidazole in endemic countries in 2019.Sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is usually fatal without treatment. Transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly, it causes neuropsychiatric symptoms; including aggression, psychosis, and a debilitating disruption of sleep patterns that have given this neglected disease its name. About 65 million people in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk.”I’ve dedicated my life as a doctor to sleeping sickness. An all-oral treatment has been a dream of mine for decades. Those affected are some of the most vulnerable and live in some of the most remote areas of the Congo, if not the world. They need a treatment that is safe, effective and simple,” said Dr Victor Kande, who as Neglected Tropical Diseases Expert Advisor to the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), was the principal investigator of the trials. “Less than ten years ago we were still treating this disease with an arsenic derivative that killed 5% of all patients. While current treatments are safe and effective, they require a patient to be hospitalized and pose a huge logistical burden on the health system. Fexinidazole comes as a simple pill: this is a huge leap in how we can tackle this deadly disease.”Fexinidazole is indicated as a 10-day once-a-day treatment for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness (the most common form of the disease, found in West and Central Africa). Importantly, fexinidazole is the first all-oral treatment that works both for (i) the early stage of the disease as well as the (ii) second stage of the disease in which the parasites have crossed the blood-brain barrier, causing patients to suffer from neuropsychiatric symptoms.During the clinical trials, which enrolled 749 patients in the DRC and Central African Republic, fexinidazole showed high efficacy and safety in both stages of the disease, both in adults and children  ≥ 6 years old and weighing ≥ 20 kg. Results showed that fexinidazole could, therefore, eliminate the need for systematic hospitalization and lead to a potential reduction in number of lumbar punctures.”Fexinidazole is an entirely new chemical entity that has been developed through an alternative non-profit R&D model. It is the first new chemical entity to be developed by DNDi,” said Dr Bernard Pécoul, DNDi Executive Director. “This therapeutic breakthrough is a testament to the unique partnership between DNDi and Sanofi to discover, develop, and register a treatment for a severely neglected disease.”Related StoriesUnpleasant experiences could be countered with a good night’s REM sleepOlympus Europe and Cytosurge join hands to accelerate drug development, single cell researchResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repairFexinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole derivative that was rediscovered in 2005, through collaboration with the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, during DNDi’s search for compounds with anti-parasitic activity, after being developed and then abandoned for strategic reasons by Hoechst (now Sanofi) in the 1980s. In 2009, DNDi and Sanofi concluded a collaboration agreement for the development, manufacturing, and distribution of fexinidazole, with DNDi responsible for pre-clinical, clinical, and pharmaceutical development, and Sanofi for industrial development, registration, production, and distribution of the drug.”This therapeutic breakthrough is the latest milestone in Sanofi’s long-term commitment to sleeping sickness,” said Dr Ameet Nathwani, Chief Medical Officer and Executive Vice President Medical Function. “Fexinidazole is the proof that partnerships between public and private sectors can deliver safe and effective medicines for the most neglected patients. Sanofi is proud to donate this medicine to the World Health Organization as part of our mission to support the elimination of sleeping sickness.”In December 2017, Sanofi submitted a regulatory dossier to the European Medicines Agency under Article 58 of Regulation 726/2004, an innovative regulatory mechanism intended for the review of new medicines destined for use outside of the European Union. By allowing for the participation of endemic countries (DRC and Uganda) and of the WHO in the evaluation of the fexinidazole regulatory dossier, approval under Article 58 also facilitates and could accelerate future national product registrations and patient access.”Together with Ministries of Health in endemic countries we have shown it is possible to conduct high quality trials in the most challenging settings,” said Dr Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, DNDi Director of Neglected Tropical Diseases. “This is only the first step – we now need to ensure patients can access and benefit from this new drug.”To develop fexinidazole, DNDi spent EUR 55 million (USD 62.5 million), which includes costs related to pre-clinical development and clinical studies. The project was supported by seven European countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK) as well as private donors including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Médecins Sans Frontières.last_img read more

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first_img Alpha-synuclein deposits are observed in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of PD patients However, it remains to be determined if the alpha-synuclein aggregates in the ENS are biochemically similar to the ones found in the brain as this might be critical in understanding the role of the gut in PD pathogenesis. Triggering of initial alpha-synuclein aggregation in enteric nerve terminals through extrinsic factors could be facilitated by intestinal hyperpermeability. It remains to be definitely demonstrated that intestinal permeability is increased in PD. Results of immunohistochemistry-based studies on alpha-synuclein deposits in the ENS of PD patients have provided conflicting results. There is therefore a critical need to develop alternative techniques to detect alpha-synuclein aggregates in the gut. Alterations of gut microbiota composition in PD have been shown in multiple cross-sectional studies from diverse populations. It will be crucial to determine the mechanisms that connect gut microbiota and PD in large multicenter studies of PD patients before and after diagnosis as well as in animal models employing multiomics approaches. Source:https://www.iospress.nl/ios_news/the-involvement-of-the-gut-in-parkinsons-disease-hype-or-hope/ Related StoriesGut infection can lead to a pathology resembling Parkinson’s diseaseNovel device could enable early diagnosis and treatment development for Parkinson’s diseaseStudy reveals vitamin B12 as inhibitor of key enzyme in hereditary Parkinson’s diseaseThe authors predict that major advances will be made over the next 20 years in understanding the role of gastrointestinal alpha-synuclein pathology in the etiology of PD and explaining the degree of similarity between pathophysiological processes in PD and those of true prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Accessible and affordable methods such as radio-opaque markers to assess gastrointestinal transit times will find more widespread use in future studies. They believe there is good reason to envision that gut microbiota may have important implications in the future diagnostic and therapeutic landscape of PD and that therapeutic applications based on the gut microbiome are possible through a range of approaches, including dietary interventions, probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. And finally, that a more detailed understanding of microbiome-host-interactions in PD could identify new pathways that could be targeted using more traditional pharmacological approaches.”Our understanding and appreciation of the importance of the gut-brain connection in PD has grown rapidly in recent years. We are confident that the coming two decades of microbiome-gut-brain-axis research will see an even accelerated development in this area that will reshape our understanding of the pathogenesis of PD,” concluded Dr. Scheperjans.”The gut has emerged as one of the new frontiers in PD research,” commented Patrik Brundin, MD, PhD, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA, and J. William Langston, MD, Stanford Udall Center, Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, Editors-in-Chief of the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease. “We predict there will be several advances regarding the gut in the coming 20 years. Changes in the gut might be utilized to diagnose PD earlier; new therapies targeting these changes might slow disease progression, reduce constipation, and improve gut function in patients who have already been diagnosed.”center_img Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 8 2019There is growing evidence that at least in some patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), the disease may begin in the gut. Writing in a special supplement to the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, experts explore the last two decades of research about the gut-brain axis in PD and look ahead at the possible development and impact of these research areas in the next two decades.PD is a slowly progressive disorder that affects movement, muscle control, and balance. In the last 20 years it has become clear that PD is associated with a number of gastrointestinal symptoms originating from functional and structural changes in the gut and its associated neural structures. Many patients with PD suffer from gut-related symptoms such as constipation, which have an impact on quality of life. Accumulating evidence suggests that in at least a subgroup of patients, these disturbances happen years before the development of motor symptoms and diagnosis of PD and may therefore provide important insights into the origin and development of the disease.”Better understanding the role of the gut in PD will help us to understand the origin of the disease and to improve treatments,” explained Filip Scheperjans, MD, PhD, from the Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, and colleagues. “There is accumulating evidence that at least in some PD patients, the origin of the disease may lie in the gut with possible involvement of abnormal protein aggregates, local inflammation, and the gut microbiome. Therefore, further studies into the role of the gut in PD are important and may reveal new possibilities for diagnosis and treatment.”The authors identified four key issues:last_img read more

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first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)May 13 2019Recently, extraordinary progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms and molecular pathways underlying focal and sclerotic bone diseases, rare disorders which have a strong genetic component. This has already led to a clearer characterization of these conditions and, in several cases, has enabled the development of new therapeutic approaches.The invited reviews featured in this special edition of ‘Calcified Tissue International’ provide expert commentary and a valuable overview of advances in the knowledge of several rare focal and sclerotic bone diseases including Paget’s disease of bone and related syndromes, fibrous dysplasia of bone and McCune-Albright syndrome, Melorheostosis and Osteopoikilosis, chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis, as well as Camurati-Engelmann disease.Related StoriesStudy reveals dual effects of new osteoporosis therapy on bone tissueInjectable hydrogel offers double punch against bone infectionsCommon antibacterial agent may be bad news for bone healthAlthough investigations into the molecular and genetic basis of these conditions have not yet yielded results for all the conditions, the advances have overall led to a better understanding of the causes of the particular lesions. In certain cases, like Paget’s disease, this knowledge has vastly improved diagnosis and management of the disorder. In other cases, such as with Camurati-Engelmann disease, it has led to research into a potentially new therapeutic approach. Finally, in other disorders where a genetic basis is suspected but not yet pinpointed, advances have still been made in the management of these disorders, for example in the case of Fibrogenesis Imperfecta Ossium.Professor Stuart Ralston, special issue editor, stated: “These state-of-the-art reviews by leading experts show the immense progress which has been made in our understanding of rare skeletal diseases. Indeed, for diseases such as Paget’s, tremendous leaps have been made which now mean a better management of the disease is possible. In other diseases, these advances mean new avenues for therapeutic intervention are now on the horizon. Although there is still a long way to go, the hope is that with increasing knowledge we will be able to continually improve patient management from diagnosis to treatment. We thank the authors for contributing these outstanding publications.” Source:https://www.iofbonehealth.org/news/reviews-highlight-new-advances-our-understanding-focal-and-sclerotic-bone-diseaseslast_img read more

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Explore further Citation: Britain urges global regulation of bitcoin (2018, January 25) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-01-britain-urges-global-bitcoin.html “I think we should be cautious about bitcoin,” finance minister Philip Hammond told Bloomberg TV on the sidelines of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. “Possibly we do need to look at the way we regulate this environment before the amount of outstanding bitcoin becomes large enough to be systemically important in the global economy.”It is not there yet but it could get there soon,” added the minister.Bitcoin is independent of governments and banks and uses blockchain technology, where encrypted digital coins are created by supercomputers.The virtual currency is not regulated by any central bank but is instead overseen by a community of users who try to guard against counterfeiting.”What is really important is in regulating the cryptocurrencies we do not inadvertantly constrain the potential of the technology that underlies, the blockchain technology, which a wider and more important application,” added Hammond on Thursday.”It needs to be done at the international level and of course it will be on the agenda for the G20 meeting in Argentina” later this year. The British government called Thursday for global regulation of controversial virtual currency bitcoin, adding that the G20 would address the topic in March. © 2018 AFP This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Q&A: How is a bitcoin mined? A look at the virtual currency Bitcoin is independent of governments and banks and uses blockchain technology, where encrypted digital coins are created by supercomputers read more

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